Lost Kingdom of Champa on the coast of Annam.

Champa was an Hindu Civilization in the East and was equally matured as civilization in Cambodia and Java. The kingdom was known variously as Champa Nagar in Cham and Cambodian inscriptions, Cham-Pa in Vietnamese and Zhancheng in Chinese records. They speak the Cham languages, a subgrouping of Malayo-Polynesian which shows a strong influence of Sanskrit. Thien Y A Na or Lady Po Nagar are the new names of Indian goddess Bhagwati Uma. Shiva worship was part of this kingdom as Shivaling could be found as Singhapura (Today my-Son ruins [3]). The record of this kingdom goes upto 2nd century AD. The Cham controlled the trade in spices and silk between China and India. Bodhidharma was too from southern part of India who took various Kaaripattu (kungfu) to China.
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Historical Champa consisted of up to five principalities:
➊ Indrapura ("City of Indra") was the capital of Champa. It was located at the site of the modern village of Dong Duong, near the modern city of Da Nang. Also in the region of Da Nang are the ancient Cham city of Singhapura ("City of the Lion"), which currently is Tra Kieu, and the valley of My Son [1]
❷ Amaravati was located in present-day Quang Nam Province.
❸ Vijaya was located in present-day Bình Dịnh Province. The capital has been identified with the archeological site at Cha Ban. The associated port was at present-day Qui Nhon. Vijaya became the political and cultural center of Champa around 1000 AD, when the northern capital of Indrapura was abandoned due to pressure from the Viet.
❹ Kauthara was located in the area of modern Nha Trang in Khanh Hoa Province. Its religious and cultural center was the temple of Po Nagar (Bhagwati Uma), several towers of which still stand at Nha Trang.
❺ Panduranga was located in the area of present-day Phan Rang in Ninh Thuan Province. Panduranga was the last of the Cham (Champa) territories to be annexed by the Vietnamese.
The historiography of Champa relies upon three types of sources:[2]
Physical remains, including brick structures and ruins, as well as stone sculptures;
Inscriptions in Cham and Sanskrit on steles and other stone surfaces;
Chinese and Vietnamese histories, diplomatic reports, and other texts.
Khmer (Kamboja) troops from Cambodia invaded the region of Kauthara [4]. There were many wars between various empires like Khmer, Mongols etc. Indravarman series kings were in control of Champa empire, while Kamboja (present Cambodia) was in control with Jayavarman series kings. It is disputably believed that Indravarman and JayaSinhavarman were of same blood and due to dispute the kingdom of Kamboja and Champa was divided.
Champa and the Khmers: until the middle of the 13th century, the relations between the two neighbors will be mostly peaceful; this situation was mostly due to the fact that now Cham had also to face the attacks of the Khmers to the West. When that exterior threat was finally warned off, local rebellions broke. This pattern of fights first against the Khmers, then against local rebels will be repeated again later during the 12th century, until in 1203, Champa fell under the Khmer domination. However, despite the fact that the Chams were without a king of their own to lead them, the last one having fled by sea, the Khmers evacuated Champa after only 17 years. The reason for this withdrawal remains unknown to us even today.
A fatal mistake: the peace lasted a few decades. In 1301, the then King of Champa, Jaya Sinhavarman III, met the former king of the Vietnamese, Thran Nhon-Ton, who was on a pilgrimage after having left the throne to his son. He proposed to the Cham king the hand of his daughter as a gesture to show his gratitude at being so welcome, and as the King agreed, he succeeded at negociating the surrending of two northern provinces to the Vietnamese. Only, those provinces were so rebellious that they immediately caused trouble. The Vietnamese blamed Champa and invaded them in 1312. The king was taken captive and replace by his younger brother, and Champa was made a province of Annam. After a failed attempt in 1314, that resulted in the brother of the former king fleeing to Java, the viceroy, Che Anan, succeeded in driving the Vietnamese out, but didn't attempt to recover the two northern provinces. [5]
The end of Champa: this was the start of either an amazing recovery, or the last coup by an already condemned country. After years of piece, in 1360, the new King, Che Nbong Nga, started a series of attacks on Annam, going as far as Hanoi that was saked by the Cham forces. They kept the pressure on until the death of the King in 1390. They withdrew immediately afterwards, but left the Vietnamese in disaray. Therefore, the counter-attack came only in 1402, but was then successful, until the new Chinese dynasty, the Ming, first put a halt to those attacks before conquering Annam. When the Vietnamese drove the Chinese forces away in 1428, they tried at first to maintain peaceful relations with the Chams, who had recovered the lost ground and were becoming pretty aggressive towards their western neighbors, Cambodia. However, when the Cham King died in 1441, civil war was at hand, and the Vietnamese didn't miss such an opportunity. After 30 years, the greatest part of Champa was definitely under Vietnamese domination. Far south, a small Cham state survived until 1720, when the King and his people flew once again in front before the Vietnamese forces that were headed to Cambodia.[5]
[1]https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/…/hi…/KingdomOfChampa.html
[2] Vickery, "Champa Revised", p.4 ff.
[3] http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/mysonsanctuary.html
[4] Ngo Van Doanh, My Son Relics, p.73.
[5] http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/549713
Cr Asian Heritage and History

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